Section 2 Definitions. of Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA), 2002
2 . (1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,—
(a) "Adjudicating Authority" means an Adjudicating Authority appointed under sub-section (1) of section 6;
(b) "Appellate Tribunal" means the Appellate Tribunal [referred to in] section 25;
(c) "Assistant Director" means an Assistant Director appointed under sub-section (1) of section 49;
(d) "attachment" means prohibition of transfer, conversion, disposition or movement of property by an order issued under Chapter III;
[(da) "authorised person" means an authorised person as defined in clause (c) of section 2 of the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (42 of 1999);]
(e) "banking company" means a banking company or a co-operative bank to which the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949) applies and includes any bank or banking institution referred to in section 51 of that Act;
(f) "Bench" means a Bench of the Appellate Tribunal;
[(fa) "beneficial owner" means an individual who ultimately owns or controls a client of a reporting entity or the person on whose behalf a transaction is being conducted and includes a person who exercises ultimate effective control over a juridical person;]
(g) "Chairperson" means the Chairperson of the Appellate Tribunal;
(h) "chit fund company" means a company managing, conducting or supervising, as foreman, agent or in any other capacity, chits as defined in section 2 of the Chit Funds Act, 1982 (40 of 1982);
[(ha) "client" means a person who is engaged in a financial transaction or activity with a reporting entity and includes a person on whose behalf the person who engaged in the transaction or activity, is acting;]
(i) "co-operative bank" shall have the same meaning as assigned to it in clause (dd) of section 2 of the Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation Act, 1961 (47 of 1961);
[(ia) "corresponding law" means any law of any foreign country corresponding to any of the provisions of this Act or dealing with offences in that country corresponding to any of the scheduled offences;
(ib) "dealer" has the same meaning as assigned to it in clause (b) of section 2 of the Central Sales Tax Act, 1956 (74 of 1956);]
(j) "Deputy Director" means a Deputy Director appointed under sub-section (1) of section 49;
(k) "Director" or "Additional Director" or "Joint Director" means a Director or Additional Director or Joint Director as the case may be, appointed under sub-section (1) of section 49;
[(l) "financial institution" means a financial institution as defined in clause (c) of section 45-I of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934) and includes a chit fund company, a housing finance institution, an authorised person, a payment system operator, a non-banking financial company and the Department of Posts in the Government of India;]
(m) "housing finance institution" shall have the meaning as assigned to it in clause (d) of section 2 of the National Housing Bank Act, 1987 (53 of 1987);
[(n) "intermediary" means,—
(i) a stock-broker, sub-broker, share transfer agent, banker to an issue, trustee to a trust deed, registrar to an issue, merchant banker, underwriter, portfolio manager, investment adviser or any other intermediary associated with securities market and registered under section 12 of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 (15 of 1992); or
(ii) an association recognised or registered under the Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1952 (74 of 1952) or any member of such association; or
(iii) intermediary registered by the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority; or
(iv) a recognised stock exchange referred to in clause (f) of section 2 of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (42 of 1956);]
[(na) "investigation" includes all the proceedings under this Act conducted by the Director or by an authority authorised by the Central Government under this Act for the collection of evidence;]
(o) "Member" means a Member of the Appellate Tribunal and includes the Chairperson;
(p) "Money-laundering" has the meaning assigned to it in section 3;
(q) "non-banking financial company" shall have the same meaning as assigned to it in clause (f) of section 45-I of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934) [***];
(r) "notification" means a notification published in the Official Gazette;
[(ra) "offence of cross border implications", means—
(i) any conduct by a person at a place outside India which constitutes an offence at that place and which would have constituted an offence specified in Part A, Part B or Part C of the Schedule, had it been committed in India and if such person [transfers in any manner] the proceeds of such conduct or part thereof to India; or
(ii) any offence specified in Part A, Part B or Part C of the Schedule which has been committed in India and the proceeds of crime, or part thereof have been transferred to a place outside India or any attempt has been made to transfer the proceeds of crime, or part thereof from India to a place outside India.
Explanation.—Nothing contained in this clause shall adversely affect any investigation, enquiry, trial or proceeding before any authority in respect of the offences specified in Part A or Part B of the Schedule to the Act before the commencement of the Prevention of Money-laundering (Amendment) Act, 2009;
(rb) "payment system" means a system that enables payment to be effected between a payer and a beneficiary, involving clearing, payment or settlement service or all of them.
Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause, "payment system" includes the systems enabling credit card operations, debit card operations, smart card operations, money transfer operations or similar operations;
(rc) "payment system operator" means a person who operates a payment system and such person includes his overseas principal.
Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause, "overseas principal" means,—
(A) in the case of a person, being an individual, such individual residing outside India, who owns or controls or manages, directly or indirectly, the activities or functions of payment system in India;
(B) in the case of a Hindu undivided family, Karta of such Hindu undivided family residing outside India who owns or controls or manages, directly or indirectly, the activities or functions of payment system in India;
(C) in the case of a company, a firm, an association of persons, a body of individuals, an artificial juridical person, whether incorporated or not, such company, firm, association of persons, body of individuals, artificial juridical person incorporated or registered outside India or existing as such and which owns or controls or manages, directly or indirectly, the activities or functions of payment system in India;]
(s) "person" includes—
(i) an individual,
(ii) a Hindu undivided family,
(iii) a company,
(iv) a firm,
(v) an association of persons or a body of individuals, whether incorporated or not,
(vi) every artificial juridical person not falling within any of the preceding sub-clauses, and
(vii) any agency, office or branch owned or controlled by any of the above persons mentioned in the preceding sub-clauses;
[(sa) "person carrying on designated business or profession" means,—
(i) a person carrying on activities for playing games of chance for cash or kind, and includes such activities associated with casino;
(ii) a Registrar or Sub-Registrar appointed under section 6 of the Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908), as may be notified by the Central Government;
(iii) real estate agent, as may be notified by the Central Government;
(iv) dealer in precious metals, precious stones and other high value goods, as may be notified by the Central Government;
(v) person engaged in safekeeping and administration of cash and liquid securities on behalf of other persons, as may be notified by the Central Government; or
(vi) person carrying on such other activities as the Central Government may, by notification, so designate, from time to time;
(sb) "precious metal" means gold, silver, platinum, palladium or rhodium or such other metal as may be notified by the Central Government;
(sc) "precious stone" means diamond, emerald, ruby, sapphire or any such other stone as may be notified by the Central Government;]
(t) "prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under this Act;
(u) "proceeds of crime" means any property derived or obtained, directly or indirectly, by any person as a result of criminal activity relating to a scheduled offence or the value of any such property [or where such property is taken or held outside the country, then the property equivalent in value held within the country];
(v) "property" means any property or assets of every description, whether corporeal or incorporeal, movable or immovable, tangible or intangible and includes deeds and instruments evidencing title to, or interest in, such property or assets, wherever located.
[Explanation.—For the removal of doubts, it is hereby clarified that the term "property" includes property of any kind used in the commission of an offence under this Act or any of the scheduled offences;
(va) "real estate agent" means a real estate agent as defined in clause (88) of section 65 of the Finance Act, 1994 (32 of 1994);]
(w) "records" include the records maintained in the form of books or stored in a computer or such other form as may be prescribed;
[(wa) "reporting entity" means a banking company, financial institution, intermediary or a person carrying on a designated business or profession;]
(x) "Schedule" means the Schedule to this Act;
(y) "scheduled offence" means—
(i) the offences specified under Part A of the Schedule; or
[(ii) the offences specified under Part B of the Schedule if the total value involved in such offences is [one crore rupees] or more; or
(iii) the offences specified under Part C of the Schedule;]
(z) "Special Court" means a Court of Session designated as Special Court under sub-section (1) of section 43;
(za) "transfer" includes sale, purchase, mortgage, pledge, gift, loan or any other form of transfer of right, title, possession or lien;
(zb) "value" means the fair market value of any property on the date of its acquisition by any person, or if such date cannot be determined, the date on which such property is possessed by such person.
(2) Any reference, in this Act or the Schedule, to any enactment or any provision thereof shall, in relation to an area in which such enactment or such provision is not in force, be construed as a reference to the corresponding law or the relevant provisions of the corresponding law, if any, in force in that area.
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- Section 1 Short title, extent and commencement
- Section 5 ATTACHMENT, ADJUDICATION AND CONFISCATION Attachment of property involved in money-laundering.
- Section 6 Adjudicating authorities, composition, powers, etc.
- Section 7 Staff of Adjudicating Authorities.
- Section 8 Adjudication.
- Section 9 Vesting of property in Central Government.
- Section 10 Management of properties confiscated under this Chapter.
- Section 11 Power regarding summons, production of documents and evidence, etc.
- Section 12 Reporting entity to maintain records
- Section 12A Access to information.
- Section 13 Powers of director to impose fine.
- Section 14 No civil or criminal proceedings against reporting entity, its directors and employees in certain cases
- Section 15 Procedure and manner of furnishing information by reporting entities.
- Section 16 Power of survey.
- Section 17 Search and seizure.
- Section 18 Search of persons.
- Section 19 Power to arrest.
- Section 20 Retention of property.
- Section 21 Retention of records.
- Section 22 Presumption as to records or property in certain cases.
- Section 23 Presumption in inter-connected transactions.
- Section 24 Burden of proof.
- Section 25 Appellate Tribunal.
- Section 26 Appeals to Appellate Tribunal.
- Section 27
- Section 28
- Section 29
- Section 30
- Section 31
- Section 32
- Section 33
- Section 34
- Section 35 Procedure and powers of Appellate Tribunal.
- Section 36 Distribution of business amongst Benches.
- Section 37 Chairman to transfer cases.
- Section 38 Decision to be by majority.
- Section 39 Right of appellant to take assistance of authorised representative and of Government to appoint presenting officers.
- Section 40 Members, etc., to be public servants.
- Section 41 Civil court not to have jurisdiction.
- Section 42 Appeal to High Court.
- Section 43 Special Courts.
- Section 44 Offences triable by Special Courts.
- Section 45 Offences to be cognizable and non-bailable.
- Section 46 Application of Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 to proceedings before Special Court.
- Section 47 Appeal and revision.
- Section 48 Authorities under Act.
- Section 49 Appointment and powers of authorities and other officers.
- Section 50 Powers of authorities regarding summons, production of documents and to give evidence, etc.
- Section 51 Jurisdiction of authorities.
- Section 52 Power of Central Government to issue directions, etc.
- Section 53 Empowerment of certain officers.
- Section 54 Certain officers to assist in inquiry, etc.
- Section 55 RECIPROCAL ARRANGEMENT FOR ASSISTANCE IN CERTAIN MATTERS AND PROCEDURE FOR ATTACHMENT AND CONFISCATION OF PROPERTY Definitions.
- Section 56 Agreements with foreign countries.
- Section 57 Letter of request to a contracting State in certain cases.
- Section 58 Assistance to a contracting State in certain cases.
- Section 58A Special Court to release the property.
- Section 58B Letter of request of a contracting State or authority for confiscation or release the property.
- Section 59 Reciprocal arrangements for processes and assistance for transfer of accused persons.
- Section 60 Attachment, seizure and confiscation, etc., of property in a contracting State or India.
- Section 61 Procedure in respect of letter of request.
- Section 62 Punishment for vexatious search.
- Section 63 Punishment for false information or failure to give information, etc.
- Section 64 Cognizance of offences.
- Section 65 Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 to apply.
- Section 66 Disclosure of information.
- Section 67 Bar of suits in civil courts.
- Section 68 Notice, etc., not to be invalid on certain grounds.
- Section 69 Recovery of fine or penalty.
- Section 70 Offences by companies.
- Section 71 Act to have overriding effect.
- Section 72 Continuation of proceedings in the event of death or insolvency.
- Section 73 Power to make rules.
- Section 74 Rules to be laid before Parliament.
- Section 75 Power to remove difficulties.
- Section 2 Definitions.